Mayo Clinic Q and A: Indicators of abdomen most cancers? Prognosis and therapy


DEAR MAYO CLINIC: A 62-year-old man I labored with was identified with abdomen most cancers earlier this 12 months. He reportedly was feeling full even after consuming small meals and skilled abdomen ache above his stomach button. I’m beginning to fear as a result of I’ve lately began to expertise comparable signs. I’m solely 38. Is it doable I might have abdomen most cancers? How do I get screened? What are the therapy choices?

ANSWER: Most individuals identified with abdomen most cancers, which can also be referred to as gastric most cancers, are over the age of 60. Nonetheless, within the U.S., abdomen cancers in folks below 40 have been steadily rising. General, this type of most cancers is just not quite common, however elements that enhance your threat embrace:

  • Consuming smoked, salted, processed or charcoaled meats, and pickled greens.
  • Consuming few or no vegetables and fruit.
  • Alcohol use.
  • Earlier abdomen surgical procedure.
  • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) an infection.
  • Inherited most cancers syndromes resembling: hereditary diffuse gastric most cancers, Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal most cancers), familial adenomatous polyposis, gastric adenoma and proximal polyposis of the abdomen, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

Sadly, abdomen most cancers doesn’t at all times trigger signs in its early levels, and lots of signs might not occur till the most cancers is superior. Indicators and signs of abdomen most cancers might embrace:

  • Issue swallowing.
  • Stomach ache.
  • Feeling bloated after consuming.
  • Feeling full after consuming small quantities of meals.
  • Not feeling hungry whenever you would anticipate to be hungry.
  • Shedding weight with out making an attempt.
  • Feeling very drained.
  • Stools that look black.

When you’ve got indicators and signs that fear you, it’s best to make an appointment together with your healthcare workforce. Many different circumstances may cause signs which can be just like abdomen most cancers. Your healthcare workforce might suggest testing resembling an higher endoscopy, additionally referred to as an higher gastrointestinal endoscopy, which is a process that’s used to visually look at your higher digestive system. This can be utilized to display screen for abdomen most cancers as the reason for your signs. An EGD permits the physician to have a look at the within of your abdomen. Abdomen most cancers can seem as an ulcer, a mass or a thickening of the abdomen wall. Your doctor then can get hold of biopsies of the world to find out in case you have abdomen most cancers.

The therapy of abdomen most cancers relies on the stage. Endoscopic ultrasound, a minimally invasive process to evaluate ailments of the digestive (gastrointestinal) tract and different close by organs and tissues, CT or PET scan imaging, and a staging laparoscopy are used to find out the scientific stage.

Whereas it’s unusual to seek out early abdomen most cancers, therapy for early-stage illness typically solely requires native therapy. For instance, in early abdomen cancers that contain solely the mucosa, or internal lining of the abdomen, and measure lower than 2-3 centimeters in dimension, the abdomen most cancers may be eliminated utilizing endoscopic submucosal dissection with out the necessity for surgical procedure or extra therapy. For different early abdomen cancers that don’t meet these standards, surgical procedure to take away the abdomen most cancers and regional lymph nodes is advisable.

Nonetheless, if the most cancers is discovered to have unfold to the lymph nodes on the time of surgical procedure, then the affected person is at a better threat of abdomen most cancers returning after surgical procedure alone. Subsequently, chemotherapy after surgical procedure is commonly advisable to lower the danger of most cancers recurrence.

Usually, sufferers are identified with extra superior abdomen most cancers, which suggests a deeper involvement of the abdomen or unfold to regional lymph nodes. On this extra frequent scenario, combining chemotherapy and surgical procedure is important for the very best outcomes. Chemotherapy often is given earlier than and after surgical procedure on this case.

Lastly, if the abdomen most cancers has been discovered to have unfold exterior the abdomen and regional lymph nodes, then that is stage 4 most cancers. The first therapy is systemic remedy. Further testing may be finished on the tumor to find out if the abdomen most cancers would possibly reply to focused remedy or immunotherapy. In some instances the place there’s a small quantity of tumor unfold to the liner of the stomach, additionally referred to as the peritoneum, surgical procedure referred to as cytoreductive surgical procedure and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy can be utilized to lengthen a affected person’s survival.

Therapy choices to deal with abdomen most cancers are advanced and must be individualized to your specific scenario. It’s important to hunt out an skilled workforce to assist with the correct staging of most cancers, assist with administration selections and for high-quality endoscopic or surgical resection. — Dr. Travis Grotz, Surgical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota


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